REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE HILL GLORY BOWER, CLERODENDRUM INFORTUNATUM L. (LAMIACEAE)

B. Dileepu Kumar, D. Sandhya Deepika, A. J. Solomon Raju

Abstract


Clerodendrum infortunatum L. is a gregarious woody shrub that flowers during dry season. The flowers are strongly protandrous, herkogamous and dichogamous displaying temporal dioecy. The flowers prevent spontaneous autogamy but facilitate geitonogamy and xenogamy which together constitute the facultative xenogamous breeding system. The flowers are visited by diurnal insects, bees, ants, thrips and butterflies of which only papilionid and pierid butterflies are pollinators. The fruit is an indehiscent drupe with fleshy mericarps and each mericarp consists of one seed only. The reddish fruiting calyx exposes the ripe fleshy fruit. The birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus, and humans feed on the fleshy part of the fruit and disperse seeds. The seeds soon dry up and also disperse by wind easily due to dry conditions during summer season. Therefore, the plant is ornithochorous, anthropochorous and anemochorous. The seeds germinate and produce new plants during wet season. Further, the perennial root stock also re-sprouts at the same time and produces new growth to carry out new reproductive cycle


Keywords


CLERODENDRUM INFORTUNATUM, DICHOGAMY, HERKOGAMY, FACULTATIVE XENOGAMY, ORNITHOCHORY, ANTHROPOCHORY, ANEMOCHORY.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4462/annbotrm-13753

Annali di Botanica is published by the Department of Environmental Biology - University La Sapienza of Rome, Italy. The journal is printed by Sapienza Università di Roma - Centro Stampa Università.

ISSN: 2239-3129