Stabilità e sviluppo in un’economia globale

Ignazio Visco

Abstract


Le speranze, emerse con la fine della guerra fredda, di poter accrescere il benessere di tutti grazie alla globalizzazione e al progresso tecnico sono state in parte deluse. Vi si sono andate sostituendo incertezze per gli effetti di questi profondi cambiamenti sulla distribuzione della ricchezza, sulla disponibilità di lavoro, sulla possibilità che lo sviluppo prosegua agli stessi ritmi degli ultimi decenni, sul suo impatto sull’ambiente, sulle conseguenze delle tendenze demografiche, sui rapporti di forza tra paesi, tra le imprese e tra queste e i consumatori. È oggi evidente la necessità di governare questi cambiamenti, prestando maggiore attenzione verso coloro che hanno difficoltà ad adattarvisi sia nei paesi avanzati, dove l’automazione e la concorrenza globale stanno spiazzando molti lavoratori impiegati in mansioni routinarie, sia in quelli emergenti e in via di sviluppo, dove le prospettive di conseguire ulteriori riduzioni della povertà si stanno deteriorando. Sono, queste, sfide cruciali per l’economia mondiale.

The hopes, emerged with end of the Cold War, of increasing everyone’s well-being thanks to globalization and technological progress have been partly disappointed. These hopes have been replaced by uncertainties about the effects of these profound changes on the distribution of wealth, the availability of work, the possibility of development continuing at the same pace as the last few decades, its impact on the environment, the consequences of demographic trends, and the balance of power between countries, between companies, and between companies and consumers. The need to govern these changes is now clear, and greater attention must be paid to those who have difficulties adapting to it both in advanced countries, where automation and global competition are displacing many workers employed in routine jobs, and in emerging and developing countries, where the prospects for further poverty reduction are deteriorating. These are the crucial challenges for the world economy.

JEL codes: F6, O33, Q54, J11



Parole chiave


globalization, technological progress, climate change, demographic trends, technological unemployment

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13133/2037-3651_72.285_1

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Reg. Tribunale di Roma n.377/2009 del 19/11/2009