Il caso Microsoft

Pierluigi Sabbatini

Abstract


The Microsoft case (U.S. vs Microsoft, 1998) is paradigmatic of some of the most important features of an antitrust case, like the definition of relevant markets, the possession of market power and of its abuse. In the software in-dustry companies compete over the standard of interconnection, which can be provided at various levels in the production chain, and the competitive environment cannot therefore be restricted to the typical relevant antitrust market. Not only on account of the problems in defining the antitrust mar-ket in a sensible way but also for other crucial reasons we encountered some difficulty in determining Microsoft's market power with the traditional methods. Hence a new definition of market power has been produced. Within this new framework we have been able to give a precise content to the statement that Microsoft has a market power, which is the pivotal point of the case. We have also shown that changes in the market structure, like the acquisition of Netscape by America on Line, could have substantially lessened this market power to the point where antitrust action is no longer desirable.

 

JEL Codes: L400, L860

 


Full Text

PDF

Riferimenti bibliografici


ARTHUR, B.W. (1989), "Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events", Economic Journal, vol. 99, no. 394, pp. 116-31.

AUERBACH, P. (1988), Competition - The Economics of Industrial Change, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

AYRES, I. (1985), "Rationalizing antitrust cluster markets", Yale Law Journal, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 109-25.

BAIN, J.S. (1941), "Relation of profit rate to industry concentration", Journal of Economics, vol. 56, February, pp. 297-304.

BISHOP, M. (1999), "Microsoft sotto processo", Mercato concorrenza regole, vol. 1, n.1, pp. 79-103.

DOWRICK, S. (1986), "von Stackelberg and Cournot duopoly: choosing roles", Rand Journal of Economics, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 251-60.

ECONOMIDES, N. (1999), Remedies in the case of US v. MS, in http://raven. stern.nyu.edu/networks/ms.

ELZINGA, K.G. (1989), "Unmasking monopoly: four types of economic evidence", in R.J. Lamer and J.W. Meehan Jr eds, Economics and Antitrust Policy, Quorum Books, New York, pp. 11-38.

ELZINGA, K.G. e D. E. MILLS (1998), "PC software", Department of Economics, University of Virginia, mimeo.

FISHER, F. (1979), "Diagnosing monopoly", Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 7-33.

FISHER, F. (1987), "Horizontal mergers: triage and treatment", Economic Perspectives, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 23-40.

FISHER, F. (1999), Memoria presentata nel corso del dibattimento sul caso Microsoft.

FISHER, F. e J.J. MCGOWAN (1983), "On the misuse of accounting rates of return to infer monopoly profits", American Economic Review, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 82-97.

FISHER, F., J.J. MCGOWAN e J.E. GREENWOOD (1983), Folded, Spindled, and Mutilated: Economic Analysis and U.S. v IBM, The Mit Press, Cambridge, Mass..

KATZ, M.L. e C. SHAPIRO (1986), "Technology adoption in the presence of network externalities"Journa/ of Political Economy, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 822-41.

KLEIN, B. (1994), "Market power in antitrust: economic analysis after Kodak", Supreme Court Economic Review, vol. 3, pp. 43-92.

KRATTENMAKER, T.G., R.H. LANDE e S.C. SALOP (1987), "Monopoly power and market power in antitrust law", Georgetown Law Journal, vol. 76, pp. 241-69.

KREPS, D.M. (1990), Game Theory and Economic Modelling, Oxford University Press, Oxford; traduzione italiana, Teoria dei giochi e modelli economici, il Mulino, Bologna, 1992.

LANDES, W.M e R.A. POSNER (1981), "Market power in antitrust cases", Harvard Law Review, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 937-96.

LEIBENSTEIN H. (1966), "Allocative efficiency vs. x-efficiency", American Economic Review, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 392-415.

LERNER, A.P. (1933), "The concept of monopoly and the measurement of monopoly power", Review of Economics Studies, vol. 1, pp. 157-75.

LIEBOWITZ, S.J. e S.E. MARGOLIS (1999), Winners, Losers & Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology, The Independent Institute, Oakland.

LOPATKA, J.E. e W.H. PAGE (1995), "Microsoft, monopolization, and network externalities: some uses and abuses of economic theory in antitrust decision making", Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 40, Summer, pp. 317-70.

MEESE, A.J. (1999), "Monopoly bundling in cyberspace: how many products does Microsoft sell?", Antitrust Bulletin, Spring, pp. 65-116.

MICROSOFT (1998), Memoria presentata nel corso del dibattimento sul caso Microsoft.

MICROSOFT (1999), "Proposed findings of facts", 10 August.

PANTALEONI, M. (1921), "Alcune osservazioni sui sindacati e sulle leghe", in Erotemi di Economia Politica, vol. 2, Laterza, Bari, pp. 251-345.

PAGE, W.H. (1999), "Microsoft and the public choice critique of antitrust", Antitrust Bulletin, Spring, pp. 5-63.

REDDY, B.J., D.S. EVANS e A.L. NICHOLS (1998), "Why does Microsoft charge so little for Windows?", National Economic Research Associates, Working Paper.

ROSEN, S. (1981), "The economics of superstar", American Economic Review, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 845-58.

SABBATINI, P. (1999), "Concetto di mercato e antitrust", Moneta e Credito, vol. 52, n. 206, pp. 181-223.

SCHMALENSEE, R. (1982), "Another look at market power", Harvard Law Review, vol. 95, pp. 1789-816.

SCHMALENSEE, R. (1999), Memoria presentata nel corso del dibattimento sul caso Microsoft.

SCHMALENSEE, R. (1999), Deposizione al processo Microsoft del 14 gennaio.

SYLOS LABINI, P. (1961), Oligopolio e progresso tecnico, Einaudi, Torino.

U.S. COURT OF APPEAL (1998), U.S. V Microsoft, WL327855. Anche in: http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/common/opinions/1998o6/975343atx

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (1998), USA v. Microsoft Corporation, Complaint.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (1999), "Proposed findings of facts", 10 August.

WARREN-BOLTON, F. (1998), Memoria presentata nel corso del dibattimento sul caso Microsoft.

WERDEN, G.J. (1998), "Demand elasticities in antitrust analysis", Antitrust Law journal, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 363-414.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.


Copyright (c) 2016 Pierluigi Sabbatini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Con il contributo di  

ISSN 2037-3651

Reg. Tribunale di Roma n.377/2009 del 19/11/2009